活佛高级建筑师木雅·曲吉建才      

  
  木雅·曲吉建才( Minyag Choekyi Gyaltsan),男,1947年生于四川省甘孜藏族自治州康定县木雅地区。

  第九世木雅夏仲活佛,康定县古瓦寺、冷古寺、孜钦曲林尼姑寺、九龙县九苏寺、道孚县扎卡托寺寺主活佛,康定县佛教协会名誉会长,西藏佛协副秘书长;

  西藏自治区建筑设计研究院总建筑师,享受国务院特殊津贴专家,西藏非物质文化遗产专家,中国西藏文化保护与发展会理事, 西藏政协常委;

  西藏大学艺术学院、工程学院兼职教授,四川省甘孜州康巴生态与文化遗产抢救咨询保护协会创建人,西南民族大学和四川省藏校客座教授。

  我国著名的西藏古建筑专家之一,被国际建筑领域称为目前我国唯一的西藏古建筑研究权威专业人士。

  联系方式:hellominyak@yahoo.com

 

  简要经历

  1947年,出生于四川康定木雅塔公乡热瓦岗的米祖西家族。

  1951年,被四川康定格鲁派木雅古瓦寺认定为第八世木雅活佛的转世灵童。

  1958年,从康定去往拉萨哲蚌寺学习深造。

  1963年,加入自治区统战部与佛教协会组织的活佛学习班,学习文化知识。“文化大革命”时期,木雅·曲吉建才和其他几位年轻的活佛一起,到山南地区的农场参加劳动,度过了7年的时间。

  1974年,在拉萨城关区建筑公司当施工员。

  1979年,被西藏自治区建筑设计院正式录用,专攻藏族传统建筑,三十多年来为对西藏古建筑和传统建筑的设计研究等方面做出了突出的成绩。

  1980年以来,先后担任扎什伦布寺、萨迦寺、桑耶寺、布达拉宫等古建筑的维修工程和复原设计等工作;在现代建筑设计中,结合民族形式方面做了一些尝试,也取得了很大成绩。

  2000年,被西藏大学古建艺术系邀请为导师。

  2000年,创建“甘孜州康巴生态与文化遗产抢救咨询保护协会”(Plateau Heritage Rescue &Consultation Association,网址为:www.plateauheritage.org)。

  2003年,西藏大学成立工程学院,他被聘为建筑系兼职教授。被四川省藏校和西南民族大学邀请为客座教授。

  主要成果

1.出版了《大昭寺》、《罗布林卡》、《古格王国遗址》、《布达拉宫》、 《西藏民居》、《神居之所:西藏建筑艺术》等建筑专著书,获自治区科研成果奖三次。

2.在编写《西藏科技志》、《西藏建设志》、《西藏风物志》、《全国古建指南》、《二十世纪中国建筑》、《拉萨志》等书目中,承担了介绍西藏名胜古迹和西藏古建章节的编写任务。

3.自1980年以来先后担任扎什伦布寺大强巴佛殿的抢修工程设计;

  承担萨迦寺大经堂维修,江孜白居塔和白居寺大殿修复工程设计和预算报告等任务,为大昭寺、甘丹寺、色拉寺等维修工作做了技术指导和顾问;

  承担哲蚌寺和楚布寺,山南梅竹林和达拉岗布寺大强巴佛殿、热振寺,阿里普兰科迦寺、江孜白居寺宗喀巴殿和宗山建筑、罗布林卡其美曲奇、日喀则扎西伦布寺强巴佛和德庆颇章、木雅方形和八角碉楼、木雅民居和佛殿设计等30多座重点文物单位修复工程的设计。

       

  详细介绍:

  他是我国著名的西藏古建筑专家之一,被国际建筑领域称为目前我国唯一的西藏古建筑研究权威专业人士。三十多年来为对西藏古建筑和传统建筑的设计研究等方面做出了突出的成绩,先后考察西藏各地著名建筑,研究出版了《大昭寺》、《罗布林卡》、《古格王国遗址》、《布达拉宫》等建筑专著书,获自治区科研成果奖三次。

  在1985年西南五省区建筑学会年会上,发表了“藏式建筑外墙色彩”的论文,后来发表在1987年《建筑学报》上,曾获西藏自治区优秀科技论文奖。先后在《四川建筑》、《西藏民俗》、《西藏研究》、《西藏佛教》、《西藏科技》等刊物上发表了藏汉两种文字的有关藏式传统建筑方面的文章,在编写《西藏科技志》、《西藏建设志》、《西藏风物志》、《全国古建指南》、《二十世纪中国建筑》、《拉萨志》等书目中,承担了介绍西藏名胜古迹和西藏古建章节的编写任务。


     
 80年代的木雅活佛                

  自1980年以来先后担任扎什伦布寺大强巴佛殿的抢修工程设计;承担萨迦寺大经堂维修,江孜白居塔和白居寺大殿修复工程设计和预算报告等任务,为大昭寺、甘丹寺、色拉寺等维修工作做了技术指导和顾问;还承担哲蚌寺和楚布寺,山南梅竹林和达拉岗布寺大强巴佛殿,热振寺,阿里普兰科迦寺,江孜白居寺宗喀巴殿和宗山建筑,罗布林卡其美曲奇,日喀则扎西伦布寺强巴佛和德庆颇章,木雅方形和八角碉楼,木雅民居和佛殿设计等30多座重点文物单位修复工程的设计。

  1987年,桑耶寺因文革期间被破坏严重,主殿金顶复原工程非常困难。桑耶寺建筑构造非常特殊,跨越15米的大堂没有一根柱子做支撑,这在西藏建筑中是独一无二的,由于内地专业人员对此不熟,复原设计工作就落在了他一人身上。寺内的喇嘛和木匠看不懂图纸,他就凭一张仅存的黑白照片做了一个1:10的模型,画了2个多月的图纸,做了5遍试验,在没有任何资料的情况下,依靠原建筑残缺的构件终于全貌复原,受到国内外专家高度赞誉。

  1990年以来,在布达拉宫维修工程办公室工作,担任技术组副组长,为维修工程设计和施工监督等方面做了大量的工作,被评为维修办先进工作者。1994年承担北京中华民族园藏族景区设计任务,被评为优秀工程设计奖。他先后担任西藏重点文物保护工程技术总监,布达拉宫正面台阶抢修工程设计总负责人,拉萨大昭寺千佛廊抢修工程设计和监理总负责人,拉萨市宇拓路改造工程,班禅大师德庆颇章和雪林多吉颇章工程负责人,还参加了布达拉宫广场设计工作,负责设计理念和传统文化方面的技术指导。

  在现代建筑设计中,结合民族形式方面做了一些尝试,也取得了很大成绩,如北京高级佛学院藏语系,西藏自治区党委政府办公大楼的方案设计和区政协办公大楼,西南民族大学教学基地藏式多功能厅,康定南大门,甘南玛曲县礼堂等设计。他曾先后在清华大学、美国夏威夷大学、印第安那大学、英国剑桥大学、法国东方语言大学,挪威科大,德国波恩大学等国内外知名学院科研单位邀请进行学术交流讲座,并数次参加国际藏学研讨会等大型国际会议。在参加美国第九届世界藏学会时发表了“吐蕃时期布达拉宫形状与布局”的论文。

   2000年被西藏大学古建艺术系邀请为导师,已经带了4批学生,2003年藏大成立工程学院,他被聘为建筑系兼职教授。四川省藏校和西南民族大学邀请为客座教授。

木雅活佛给信徒讲经灌顶

  虽然在国内外古建筑界已经有很高的声望,长期为国内外关注文化遗产保护的机构、组织、学者提供文化遗产维修方面的专业咨询和开展项目,但是木雅•曲吉建才先生一直想用自己的知识为经济较落后的家乡文物保护和各项事业的发展贡献自己的力量。由此,他在四川甘孜州康定县领导的鼓舞和引导下创建了“甘孜州康巴生态与文化遗产抢救咨询保护协会”(Plateau Heritage Rescue &Consultation Association)向国内外关注文化遗产保护的社会各界提供文化遗产保护和维修方面的专业技术咨询工作,同时也向其他国内外组织、机构申请开展一些生态与文化遗产保护项目如在康定县沙德木雅地区开展了900-1200年的数座古碉维修,数个年代700年以上壁画的古殿堂等维修工作。该会的所有的咨询所得用于康区特别是木雅地区文化遗产保护和各项事业的发展。

  传奇经历

  木雅·曲吉建才出生在今四川康定木雅(古西夏王国)塔公乡热瓦岗没落土司米祖西家族。本世纪50年代初的一个秋天,一位老奶奶领着一个4岁的病儿童拔山涉水奔走几十公里寺院朝佛祛病。因为那孩童的种种异样表现,寺里的老喇嘛、老格西们把他认定为几年前去世的本寺主持活佛的转达世灵童,从此,这个名叫曲吉建才的男孩被确认为格鲁派木雅古瓦寺的第八世木雅活佛的转世灵童而登上了该寺主持活佛的宝座,做了第九世木雅•夏仲活佛。

  座落在山腰间的藏传佛教格鲁派寺院古瓦寺,始建于公元1556年,是康区最古老的黄教寺院之一,创建人岗日丹白尼玛为二世达赖喇嘛的徒弟,阿里古格亲王,该寺培养了许多藏区知名的宗教界大学者,其中包括象征格鲁派母寺的最高宗教级别93、95辈甘丹法台,除了康定县古瓦寺作为母寺外,还为冷古寺,孜钦曲林尼姑寺,九龙县九苏寺,道孚县扎卡托寺的寺主活佛。

  1958年在拉萨哲蚌寺学经,学经不到一年,拉萨发生了武装叛乱。此后,在寺庙整顿的过程中,他进入为拉萨三大寺的小喇嘛开办的“色拉寺小学”学习,所设课程有藏文、汉文和数学。1963年,他又加入自治区统战部与佛教协会专门为十几名青少年活佛组织的学习班,继续学习文化知识。“文化大革命”时期,木雅·曲吉建才和其他几位年轻的活佛一起,到山南地区的农场参加劳动。在艰难的环境中,他们学会了各种农活,当过木工、瓦工和船工的木雅曲吉建才建筑师生涯恐怕就是从那时开始的。

  1974在拉萨城关区建筑公司当施工员。1979年,木雅·曲吉建才被西藏自治区建筑设计院正式录用。因为在开设了三年系统课程的建筑专业学习班中,曲吉建才是学习成绩最好的学生之一,以优异的成绩留在了自治区建筑设计院从事建筑设计工作,专攻藏族传统建筑.教授的设计作品遍布全区各地。

Senior Architect Tulku Minyak Choekyi Gyaltsan
  
 
Profile
Name:    Minyag Choekyi Gyaltsan
Contact number:               Email: hellominyak@yahoo.com
Gender:         Male             Date of Birth: 1947
Birthplace:     Minyag Area, Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province
Current positions:
§         Ninth reincarnation of Minyag Shadrong Tulku: the principal Tulku of Guwa, and Lenggu Monasteries and Tsechen Choling Nunnery in Kangding County; Jiusu Monastery in Jiulong County, and Zhakatuo Monastery in Daofu County
§         Chief Architect of Architectural Design and Research Institute, Lhasa, TAR
§         Deputy Secretary of the TAR Buddhist Association
§         Specialist enjoying the state council allowance
§         Specialist on TAR intangible cultural heritage
§         Director of Chinese Tibetan Culture Protection and Development Organization
§         Standing member of the TAR CPPCC
§         Honorary President of the Kangding Buddhist Association
§         Part-time Professor at the Departments of Art and Engineering, Tibet University
§         Founder of Ganzi Kham Ecological and Cultural Heritage Rescue Advisory & Protection Association (www.plateauheritage.org)
§         Visiting professor in Southwest University of Nationalities and Sichuan Tibetan School    
 
Basic information: 
He is a well known specialist on Tibetan ancient architecture and is credited as being the only current professional and authoritative expert on such architecture. He has made significant contributions to the research of design of ancient and traditional architecture and has observed and studied significant structures in various parts of Tibet. He has published works on the Jokhang Temple, Norbulingka, Relics of The Guge Kingdom, the Potala Palace and other architectural books. In addition, he has received three scientific research awards from organizations in the TAR.
 
At the annual conference of five provinces and autonomous regions of the Southwest Institute of Architects in 1985, he presented the essay titled ‘Tibetan Exterior Wall Color’ which was then published in Architectural Journal in 1987 and subsequently awarded the outstanding scientific paper by the TAR. During all these years, he also has published papers about Tibetan ancient styled architecture in both Tibetan and Chinese languages in the following magazines: Sichuan Architecture, Tibetan Folklore, Tibetan Research, Tibetan Buddhism, and Tibetan Technology. He was responsible for introducing and editing the chapters ‘Tibetan Scenic Spots of Historical Significance’ and ‘Tibetan Ancient Architecture’ in the books Tibetan Technology Report, Tibetan Architecture Report, Tibetan Heritage Report, National Ancient Architecture Guide, Chinese Architecture in Twentieth Century, and Report on Lhasa.    
 
 
Figure 1 Minyag Tulku in the 1980s
 
 
Figure 2 Minyag Tulku lecturing followers
 
Since 1980 he has undertaken the repair designs of the great Shamba temple in Tashi Lhunpo Monastery; the repair of Sakya Monastery Sutra Chanting Hall; the repair designs and budgeting of the Gyangze White Tower and the main temple of Baiqoi Monastery. He also provided consultation and technical support on the repairs of the Jokhang Temple; Ganden Monastery and Sera Monastery; and also designed the repairs of over 30 key cultural relics such as: Drepung Monastery and Tsurphu Monastery; Shannan plum and bamboo forest; Dara Kong Monastery; Reting Monastery; Pulankejia Temple; mountain buildings and Tsongkhapa Temple of Gyantse Phalkor Monastery; Norbulingka Chimid; the statues of Shanpa and Dechen Phodrang in Tashilunbo Monastery in Shigatse; ancient Minyak square and octagonal towers; and ancient Minyak residential houses and temples.
 
In 1987, due to damages sustained during the Cultural Revolution, it was very difficult to repair the golden roof of the main temple at Samye Monastery. Additionally there was not even a single pillar supporting the 15-meter-leap hall. Such construction is exclusively significant to the TAR and as others are unfamiliar with such construction, the task fell on his shoulders. The monks and carpenters could not read the drawings, so he made a 1:10 model based only on the preserved black and white photograph. He drew for more than two months, conducted numerous experiments, and eventually restored the entire structure. This, without having any data caused his work to be highly spoken of by fellow specialists both from inside and outside of the country.
 
Since 1990, he has worked in the office of the Potala Palace, as Deputy Supervisor of the Technical Work Group for restorations and in this capacity has made great contributions to the Repair Master Plan and Construction. He has been regarded as the advanced worker of the group.
 
In 1994, he designed the Tibetan scenic area of the Chinese Ethnic Culture Park in Beijing and received an award for Outstanding Project Designer. He assumed duties as the Technical Director of Tibetan Key Cultural Preservation Project; the Project Chief for repairing the front stairs of the Potala Palace; the Director General and Project Designer for repairing the Thousand Gallery of the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa; reconstruction of Yutuo Street in Lhasa; Project Leader for the Panchen Lama Dechen Poddrang and Dorjee Poddrang; and he also participated in the designing of Potala Palace Square and provided concepts and technical guidance on traditional culture. 
 
He also attempted to incorporate ethnic styles into the designs of modern architecture and achieved great success in the designs of buildings such as the Beijing High Institute of Buddhism Tibetan Language Department; the office buildings of TAR Government and Party Committee and CPPCC of TAR; the Tibetan-styled function room of Education Base at the Southwest University of Nationalities; the South Gate of Kangding; and design of the Assembly Hall in Machu County, Gannan.   
 
He has given numerous academic lectures and participated in exchange seminars at Tsinghua University, the University of Hawaii in the United States, Indiana University, University of Cambridge, University of Oriental Language in France, Norwegian University of Science, University of Bonn in Germany and other important universities and institutes upon invitation. He has frequently participated in the International Conference on Tibet and other international gatherings. At the Ninth American Conference on Tibet, he presented his paper ‘The Shape and Layout of Potala Palace During the Tubo Period’. In 2000 he was invited by the Ancient Architecture Department of the University of Tibet to act as an advisor and has thus overseen four groups of students. In 2003 the University of Tibet established the College of Engineering and he has since been employed as a part-time professor. Sichuan Tibetan School and Southwest University for Nationalities have invited him as a guest professor.      
     
Because he has a renowned reputation in the field of ancient architecture he is able to provide consultation on architectural restoration to national and international cultural heritage preservation institutes, organizations, and individuals. Mr. Minyak Choekyi Gyaltsen has always aspired to contribute his knowledge towards heritage preservation and the development of various projects. Therefore, he established Plateau Heritage Rescue & Consultation Association (www.plateauheritage.org) under the encouragement and guidance of leaders from Kangding County and has thus provided professional consultation services to interested parties from different parts of the society, both domestic and international. Meanwhile he also applied and implemented ecological and cultural heritage conservation projects with national and international institutes and organizations. For example, the repair of several 900-to 1200-year-old ancient towers in the Minyak areas of Kangding County and repair of 700-year-old wall paintings and ancient halls. All the income of this association is used for cultural heritage preservation and other projects in Kham, particularly in Minyak.                   
 
Legendary Experience
Minyak Choekyi Gyaltsen was born in the declined Rewagang chieftain's family in Lhagong town, Minyak (West Xia Kingdom), Kangding, Sichuan. In an autumn in the fifties of this century, an old nanny climbed over mountains and crossed rivers and brought a four year old boy to the monastery for pilgrims and abolishing diseases. Because of the boy's unusual behavior, elder Lamas and Geshies recognized him as the reincarnation of the deceased Khenpo from their monastery. Since then this boy has been called Minyak Chokyi Gyaltsen and was confirmed to be the reincarnation of eighth Minyak Tulku from Minyak Guwa Monastery of the Gelug sect and thus took up the holy throne of the Khenpo of that monastery and became the Ninth Minyak Xiazhong Tulku.
 
Guwa Monastery of the Gelug sect of Tibetan Buddhism is located in the middle of a mountain. It was built in the year of 1556 and was known to be one of the oldest Gelugpa monasteries in Kham. The founder, Khangri Danpa Nyima, was a student of the Second Dalai Lama. This monastery has raised numerous great Tibetan Buddhist scholars including the highest religious ranks 93, 95 ranked masters of the mother temple of the Gelug sect – Gandan Monastery. Kangding Guwa Monastery is the mother temple, and has raised the Khenpos of Lenggu Monastery, Qulin Nun Temple, Jiusu Monastery in Jiulong County and Zhakatuo Monastery in Daofu County.          

In 1958, he went to study Buddhism in Lhasa at the Drepung Monastery and soon after that, the rebellion brought Lhasa into a new historical stage. After this event, during the reform of the monastery, he enrolled in Sera Monastery Primary School, which was built for the three major monasteries in Lhasa, to study. There he studied Tibetan language, Chinese language and mathematics. In 1963, he joined the United Front Work Department of the TAR and Buddhism Association and organized an education workshop for a dozen young tulkus. During the Cultural Revolution, Minyak Choekyi Gyaltsen, with some other young tulkus, was assigned to work the farmland in the Shannan area. Under those harsh circumstances, he learned to do farm work, became a carpenter, a boatman, a bricklayer and his career as an architect probably originated at this time. In 1974, he became a construction worker in the Lhasa Chengguan Construction Company. In 1979, Minyak Choekyi Gyaltsen was officially employed by the Architecture Design Institute of the TAR. Since he was one of the top students during the three-year systematic study of architecture, he stayed on at the Architecture Design Institute of TAR and worked on architecture designs, specializing in Tibetan Traditional Architecture. His works are seen all over TAR.